PRIVACY AS A CULTURAL PHENOMENON

Garfield Benjamin

Abstract


Privacy remains both contentious and ever more pertinent in contemporary society. Yet it persists as an ill-defined term, not only within specific fields but in its various uses and implications between and across technical, legal and political contexts. This article offers a new critical review of the history of privacy in terms of two dominant strands of thinking: freedom and property. These two conceptions of privacy can be seen as successive historical epochs brought together under digital technologies, yielding increasingly complex socio-technical dilemmas. By simplifying the taxonomy to its socio-cultural function, the article provides a generalisable, interdisciplinary approach to privacy. Drawing on new technologies, historical trends, sociological studies and political philosophy, the article presents a discussion of the value of privacy as a term, before proposing a defense of the term cyber security as a mode of scalable cognitive privacy that integrates the relative needs of individuals, governments and corporations.

Keywords


Privacy, information technology, digital culture, social media, communications.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abadi, M. & Andersen, D. 2016. Learning to Protect Communications with Adversarial Neural Cryptography. Arxiv (Under review as a conference paper at ICLR 2017), 1-15. 21 October 2016. https://arxiv.org/abs/1610.06918

Assange, J. 2006. Conspiracy as Governance. Iq 3 December 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20070129125831/http://iq.org:80/conspiracies.pdf

Bambauer, D. 2013. Privacy versus security. The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology 103(3), 667-683.

Blank, G., Bolsover, G. & Dubois, E. 2014. A New Privacy Paradox: Young people and privacy on social network sites. Global Cyber Security Capacity Centre: Draft Working Paper, 1-33.

Bard, A. & Söderqvist, J. 2012. The Futurica Trilogy: The Netocrats. Stockholm: Stockholm Text.

Barlow, J.P. 1996. A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace. 9 February 1996. https://w2.eff.org/Censorship/Internet_censorship_bills/barlow_0296.declaration

Choi, M.H.K. 2016. Like. Flirt. Ghost: A Journey into the Social Media Lives of Teens. 25 August 2016. https://www.wired.com/2016/08/how-teens-use-social-media/

DeCew, J. 2013. Privacy. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 9 August 2013. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/privacy

de Londras, F. 2014. Privatized counter-­‐terrorist surveillance. Constitutionalism undermined. In F. Davis, N. McGarrity and G. Williams, (eds.), Surveillance, Counter-­‐Terrorism and Comparative Constitutionalism. Abingdon: Routledge, 59–72.

Doctorow, C. 2007. Scroogled. Craphound (Radar October 2007) http://craphound.com/scroogled.html

Doctorow, C.. 2016. The Privacy Wars Are About to Get a Whole Lot Worse. Locus Online 4 September 2016. http://www.locusmag.com/Perspectives/2016/09/cory-doctorowthe-privacy-wars-are-about-to-get-a-whole-lot-worse/

Fenster, M. in Ellis, E.G. 2016. WikiLeaks Has Officially Lost the Moral High Ground. Wired. 27 July 2016. https://www.wired.com/2016/07/wikileaks-officially-lost-moral-high-ground/?mbid=social_twitter

Floridi, L. 1999. Information ethics: On the philosophical foundation of computer ethics. Ethics and Information Technology 1(1), 37-56.

Foucault, M. 1991. Discipline and Punish. London: Penguin

Fuchs, C. 2011. Towards an Alternative Concept of Privacy. Journal of Information, Communication & Ethics in Society 9(4), 220-237.

Guattari, F. 2013 [1989]. Schizoanalytic Cartographies. London: Bloomsbury.

Gunkel, D. 2009. Beyond mediation: thinking the computer otherwise. Interactions: Studies in Communication and Culture 1(1), 53-70.

Gunkel, D. 2012. The Machine Question: Critical Perspectives on AI, RObots, and Ethics. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Halbert, D. 2016. Intellectual property theft and national security: Agendas and assumptions. The Information Society: An International Journal 32(4), 256-268.

Jameson, F. 2005. Archaeologies of the Future: The Desire Called Utopia and Other Science Fictions. London: Verso.

Johns Hopkins University. 2014. The Johns Hopkins Foreign Affairs Symposium Presents: The Price of Privacy: Re-Evaluating the NSA. youtube 7 April 2014. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kV2HDM86XgI

Kwecka, Z., Buchanan, W., Schafer, B. and Rauhofer, J. 2014. “I am Spartacus”: privacy enhancing technologies, collaborative obfuscation and privacy as a public good. Artificial Intelligence Law 22, 113-139.

Lacan, J. 1977. The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psycho-Analysis. London: Hogarth.

Li, Y., Kobsa, A., Knijnenburg, B. & Nguyen, M.C. 2017. Cross-Cultural Privacy Prediction. Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies 2, 93-112.

Liang, H., Shen, F., & Fu, K. 2016. Privacy protection and self-disclosure across societies: A study of global Twitter users. New Media & Society, 1-22.

Liu, J., Ryan, M.D. & Chen, L. 2014. Balancing Societal Security and Individual Privacy: Accountable Escrow System. IEEE 27th Computer Security Foundations Symposium, 427-440.

Livingstone, S. & Sefton-Green, J. 2016. The Class: Living and Learning in the Digital Age. New York: NYU Press.

MacKinnon, C. 1989. Toward a Feminist Theory of the State. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Mamonov, S. & Koufaris, M. 2016. The impact of exposure to news about electronic government surveillance on concerns about government intrusion, privacy self-efficacy, and privacy protective behavior. Journal of Information Privacy and Security 12(2), 56-67.

McLuhan, M. 2001 [1964]. Understanding Media. Abingdon: Routledge.

Millham, M.H., & Atkin, D. 2016. Managing the virtual boundaries: Online social networks, disclosure, and privacy behaviors. New Media & Society, 1-18.

Ojanen, T. 2016. Rights-Based Review of Electronic Surveillance after Digital Rights Ireland and Schrems in the European Union. In D. Cole, F. Fabbrini and S. Schulhofer (eds.). Surveillance, Privacy and Trans-Atlantic Relations. Oxford: Hart, 13-30.

Proudhon, P.J. 2007 [1851]. The General Idea of the Revolution in the Nineteenth Century. New York: Cosimo.

Proudhon, P.J. 2014 [1840]. What is Property? An Inquiry into the Principle of Right and of Government. Createspace.

Safronova, V. 2015. On Fake Instagram, a Chance to Be Real. New York Times. 18 November 2015. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/11/19/fashion/instagram-finstagram-fake-account.html?smid=pl-share&_r=0

Sager, M. 2007. Andy Grove: What I've Learned. Esquire. 29 January 2007. http://www.esquire.com/entertainment/interviews/a1449/learned-andy-grove-0500/

Schneier, B. 2003. Beyond Fear: Thinking Sensibly About Security in an Uncertain World. New York: Copernicus.

Schneier, B. 2012. Liars and Outliers: Enabling the Trust that Society Needs to Thrive. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons.

Schneier, B. 2015. Data and Goliath: The Hidden Battles to Collect Your Data and Control Your World. New York: W.W. Norton.

Schneier, B. 2016. By November, Russian hackers could target voting machines. Washington Post 27 July 2016. https://www.washingtonpost.com/posteverything/wp/2016/07/27/by-november-russian-hackers-could-target-voting-machines/?utm_term=.471a6a2c3dc1

Scholz, L.H.. 2016. Privacy as Quasi-Property. Iowa Law Review 101, 1113-1141.

Solove, D. 2006. A Taxonomy of Privacy. University of Pennsylvania Law Review 154(3), 477-564,

Solove, D. 2008. Understanding Privacy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Tapscott, D. & Tapscott, A. 2016. The Impact of the Blockchain Goes Beyond Financial Services. Harvard Business Review 10 May 2016. https://hbr.org/2016/05/the-impact-of-the-blockchain-goes-beyond-financial-services

van Schoonhoven, B., Roosendaal, A. & Huijboom, N. 2013. Privacy Versus Collective Security - Drivers and Barriers Behind a Trade-off. IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology 421 Privacy and Identity Management, 93-101.

Warren, S. & Brandeis, L. 1890. The Right to Privacy. Harvard Law Review IV(5).

Weber, M. 2004 [1919]. The Vocation Lectures: Politics as a Vocation. Indianapolis: Hackett.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17349/jmc117204

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2017 Journal of Media Critiques [JMC]

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.