THE NEW NATURE OF CULTURAL DIPLOMACY IN THE AGE OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION

Hasan Saliu

Abstract


Countries undertake different actions to improve international image in order to benefit politically, economically, culturally, etc. This is made through actions of public diplomacy, where cultural diplomacy is an important dimension. It doesn’t use media as mediating channel, but communication with foreign public is carried through different exchanges, visits, tourism, diaspora, etc. This makes communication more reliable than information and influencing foreign public through media. However, lately, online communication through different platforms, where people from different cultures and countries exchange messages, has also changed the nature of traditional cultural diplomacy. This enables creating an image for their country or receiving an image for another country, whereas on the other hand and simultaneously this makes communication with the foreign public more complex and unmanageable. 


Keywords


Culture, cultural diplomacy, intercultural communication, image, online communication

Full Text:

PDF

References


Anholt, S. (2007). Places, Identity, image and reputation. London: Palgrave Macmillan, London.

Appel, A. Irony, A., Schmerz, S., Ziv, A. (2008). Cultural Diplomacy: An Important but Neglected Tool in Promoting Israel’s Public Image.The Interdisciplinary Center Herzliya Lauder School of Government, Diplomacy and Strategy. May. Available from: http://portal.idc.ac.il/sitecollectiondocuments/cultural_diplomacy.pdf [Accessed 15 Nov 2016]

Arndt, R. T. (2006). The first Resort of Kings, American Cultural Diplomacy in the Twentieth Century. Washington, D.C.: Potomac Books, Inc.

Carey, J. W. (2009). Communication as Culture, Essays on Media and Society. New York: Routladge.

Cohen, R. (2002). Negotiating Across Cultures – International Communication in aInterdependent World. Washington: United States Institute of Peace.

Cull, N.J. (2006). Public diplomacy before Gullion: the evolution of a phrase. CPD Blog April 18. Available from: http://uscpublicdiplomacy.org/blog/060418_public_diplomacy_before_gullion_the_evolution_of_a_phrase [Accessed 5 April 2016].

Cull, N.J. (2008). Public Diplomacy: Taxonomies and Histories. In: Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 616. 31-54.

Cull, N.J. (2009). Public diplomacy: lessons from the past. CPD perspectives on public diplomacy. Los Angeles, CA: Figueroa Press.

Cummings, M.C.Jr. (2003). Cultural Diplomacy and the United States Government: A Survey. Washington, D.C.: Center for Arts and Culture.

Deibert, R. J. (2002). Hyper-Realities of World Politics: Theorizing the Communications Revolution. In: Potter, E.H. (2002). Cyber- Diplomacy, Menaging Foreign Policy in the Twenty-First Century. McGill Queens’s University Press.

DeNora, T. (2000). Music in Everyday Life. Cambridge University Press.

Djerejian, E. P. (2003). Changing Minds, Winning Peace - A new Strategic Direction for U.S. Public Diplomacy in the Arab & Muslim World. Report of the Advisory Group on Public Diplomacy for the Arab and Muslim World. October, 1. Available from: http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/24882.pdf [Accessed 12 May 2017]

Fisher, A. (2013). Collaborative Public Diplomacy, How Transnational Networks Influenced American Studies in Europe. New York: Palgrave MacMillan.

Fouts, J. S. (Ed.). (2006). Public Diplomacy Practitioners, Policy Makers, and Public Opinion.CPD perspectives on public diplomacy. Los Angeles, CA: Figueroa Press.

Gilboa, E. (2008). Searching for a Theory of Public Diplomacy. In: The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. Los Angeles: Sage, March. 55-77.

Hall. E.T. (1959). The Silent Language. New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc.

Martin J.N. & Nakayama Th. K. (2010). Intercultural Communication in Contexts. 5th ed. Boston: McGraw Hill.

Higham, R. (2001). The World Needs More Canada. Canada Needs More Canada, in: Baillargeonm, J. P., Ed. The Handing Down of Culture, Smaller Societies, and Globalization. Ontario: Grubstreet Editions.

Higham, R. (Ed.). (2001). The World Needs More Canada. Canada Needs More Canada,’ in Jean-Paul Baillargeonm. The Handing Down of Culture, Smaller Societies, and Globalization, Ontario: Grubstreet Editions.

Holden, J. (2010). Influence and Attraction - Culture and the race for soft power in the 21st century. London: British Council-Demos.

Hyavard, H. (2001). News Media and the Globalization of the Public Sphere. Goteborg: Nordicom.

Jonsson, Ch. & Hall, M. (2005). Essence of Diplomacy. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Katz, E. &Lazarsfeld, P.F. (2009). Personal Influence - The Part Played by People in the now of Mass Communications. London: Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick.

Leonard, M. (2002). Public Diplomacy. London: The Foreign Policy Centre.

Leonard, M. (2009). Diplomacy by Other Means. In: Foreign Policy. November 9. Available from: http://foreignpolicy.com/2009/11/09/diplomacy-by-other-means/ [Accessed 26 Jan 2017]

Mark, S. (2009). A Greater Role for Cultural Diplomacy, Netherlands Institute of International Relations ‘Clingendael’. ISSN: 1569-2981, April. Available from: http://www.clingendael.nl/sites/default/files/20090616_cdsp_discussion_paper_114_mark.pdf [Accessed 12 Jan 2017]

Melissen, J. (2011). Concluding reflections on soft power and public diplomacy in East Asia. In: Lee, S.J. and Melissen, J., eds. Public diplomacy and soft power in East Asia. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. (247–262).

Melissen, J. (Ed.). (2005). The new public diplomacy: soft power in international relations. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Mitchell, J.M. (1986). International cultural relations. London: Allen and Unwin.

Nye, J.S. Jr. (2004). Soft Power – The Means to Success in World Politics. New York: Public Affair.

Owen, S. (Ed.). (2008). Richard Hoggart and Cultural Studies. New York: Palgrave MacMillan.

Potter, E. (Ed.). (2002). Cyber-Diplomacy: Managing Foreign Policy in the Twenty-First Century.Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

US Department of State. (2005). Cultural diplomacy: the linchpin of public diplomacy. Report of the advisory committee on cultural diplomacy. September.Available from: http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/54374.pdf [Accessed 19 Sept 2016]

Rosendorf, N.M. (2009). A Cultural Public Diplomacy Strategy, in: Seib, Ph., Toward a New Public Diplomacy - Redirecting U.S. Foreign Policy. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Said, E. (1977). Orientalism. London: Penguin.

Saliu, H. (2017). International Image of the Country through Strategic Communication, Case of Kosovo. Journal of Media Critiques [JMC], 3(9). Doi: 10.17349/jmc117105 Available from: http://mediacritiques.net/index.php/jmc/article/view/113 [Accessed 15 May 2016].

Schneider, C.P. (2004). Culture Communicates: US Public Diplomacy that Works. Netherlands Institute of International Relations ‘Clingendael’ ISSN 1569-2981, September. Available from: http://www.clingendael.nl/sites/default/files/20040300_cli_paper_dip_issue94.pdf [Accessed 26 Nov 2016].

Smith, A.D. (1999). Myths and Memories of the Nation. Oxford University Press.

Snow, N. & Taylor, Ph.M. (Ed.). (2009). Routledge Handbook of Public Diplomacy. New York-London: Routledge.

Totman, S. A. (2009). How Hollywood Projects Foreign Policy. New York: Palgrave MacMillan.

Tuch, H. N. (1990). Communicating with the world: U.S. public diplomacy overseas. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University.

Waller, M. (Ed.). (2007). The Public Diplomacy Reader. Washington, D.C.: Institute of World Politics Press.

Williams, R. (1960). Culture and Society 1780-1950. New York: Anchor Books Doubleday & Company, Inc.

Wolton, D. (2009). Informer n’est pas communiquer. Paris: CNRS Editions.

Zaharna, R.S. (2012). The Cultural Awakening in Public Diplomacy. Los Angeles: Figueroa Press.

Zaharna, R.S. Arsenault, A., and Fisher, A. (Ed.). (2013). Relational, networked and collaborative approaches to public diplomacy: the connective mind shift. New York, NY: Routledge.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17349/jmc117206

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2017 Journal of Media Critiques [JMC]

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.