SOURCING PATTERNS WITHIN BRITISH AND AMERICAN NEWSPAPER COVERAGE OF THE 2011 EGYPTIAN REVOLUTION: THE RISE OF NON-ELITE PRIMARY DEFINERS

Patrick Fitzgerald

Abstract


Previous studies have noted the dominance of official sources within the news process and their unique ability to shape media narratives. This research addresses the role and implications of news sources in contributing to the overwhelmingly positive portrayal of the anti-Mubarak opposition protesters within British and American newspaper coverage of the 2011 Egyptian Revolution. Furthermore, this paper will assess how the position of global political elites towards the protests in Egypt possibly opened up the editorial space within the news coverage of the revolution for the anti-Mubarak opposition movement to emerge as the dominant voice within the reporting.

Keywords


News sources, Arab Spring, newspapers, journalistic routines, content analysis, political protest

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ansari, A. (2012). The role of social media in Iran’s Green Movement (2009-2012). Global Media Journal – Australian Edition, 12, 1-6.

Archetti, C. (2011). “Reporting the Nation: Understanding the Role of Foreign Correspondents in 21st Century Public Diplomacy”, (Paper prepared for the International Studies Association (ISA) Annual Convention. Montreal, Canada. 16-19 of March, 2011), pp. 1-42.

Bennett, W. L. (1990). Toward a Theory of Press-State Relations in the United States. Journal of Communication, 40(2), 103-125.

Boykoff, J. (2006). Framing dissent: Mass-Media Coverage of the Global Justice Movement. New Political Science, 28(2), 201-228.

Boyle, M., McCluskey, M., Devanathan, N., Stein, S., and McLeod, D. (2004). The Influence of Deviance Level and Protest Type on Coverage of Social Protest in Wisconsin from 1960 to 1999. Mass Communication and Society, 7(1), 43-60.

Boyle, M., McCluskey, M., McLeod, D., and Stein, S. (2005). Newspapers and Protest: An Examination of Protest Coverage from 1960 to 1999. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 82(3), 638-653.

Christensen, C. (2005). Pocketbooks or Prayer Beads? U.S./U.K. Newspaper Coverage of the 2002 Turkish Elections. The Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 10(1), 109-128.

Clausen, L. (2003). Global News Production. Copenhagen: Copenhagen Business School Press.

Clausen, L. (2004). Localizing the global. Media, Culture & Society, 26(1), 25-44.

Cook, T. (1998). Governing With The News: The News Media as a Political Institution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Cottle, S. (2000). Rethinking News Access. Journalism Studies, 1(3), 427-448.

Cottle, S. (2000). New(s) Times: Toward a ‘Second Wave’ of News Ethnography. Communications: The European Journal of Communication Research, 25(1), 19-41.

Cottle, S. (2003). News, public relations and power: mapping the field. In Cottle, S., (ed) News, Public Relations, and Power (pp. 10-13). London: SAGE Publications.

Dardis, F. (2006). Military Accord, Media Discord: A Cross-National Comparison of UK vs US Press Coverage of Iraq War Protest. International Communication Gazette, 68(5-6), 409-426.

Entman, R. (2004). Projections Of Power: Framing News, Public Opinion, and U.S. Foreign Policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Fitzgerald, P. (2016). Legitimising Dissent: Media Framing of the 2011 Egyptian Revolution within British and American Print Media. Mediální studia / Media Studies: Journal for Critical Media Inquiry, 10(2), 156-172.

Fisk, R. Revealed: U.S. envoy’s business link to Egypt; Obama scrambles to limit damage and clarify policy, US describes Wisner’s views as ‘personal’. (2011, 7 February). The Independent.

Galtung, J. and Ruge, M.H. (1965). The structure of foreign news. Journal of Peace Research, 1, 64-91.

Gans, H. (1979). Deciding What’s News: A Study of CBS Evening News, NBC Nightly News, Newsweek, and Time. New York: Pantheon.

Gans, H. (2011). Multiperspectival news revisited: Journalism and respresentative democracy. Journalism, 12(1), 3-13.

Gitlin, T. (1980). The Whole World Is Watching: Mass Media In The Making and Unmaking Of The New Left. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Greer, C. and McLaughlin, E. (2011). ‘Trial by media’: Policing, the 24/7 news mediasphere and the ‘politics of outrage’. Theoretical Criminology, 15, 23-46.

Guzman, A. (2016). Evolution of News Frames During the 2011 Egyptian Revolution: Critical Discourse Analysis of Fox News’s and CNN’s Framing of Protesters, Mubarak, and the Muslim Brotherhood. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 93(1), 80-98.

Hall, S., Critcher, C., Jefferson, T., Clarke, J., and Roberts, B. (1999). Policing the Crisis (Excerpt). In Tumber, H. (Ed.), News: A Reader (pp. 249-256). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hallin, D. (1986). The “Uncensored” War: The Media and Vietnam. New York: Oxford University Press.

Halloran, J., Elliott, P., and Murdock, G. (1970). Demonstrations and Communications: a Case Study. Middlesex: Penguin Books.

Hermida, A., Lewis, S., and Zamith, R. (2014). Sourcing the Arab Spring: A Case Study of Andy Carvin’s Sources on Twitter During the Tunisian and Egyptian Revolutions. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 19, 479-499.

Hines, N. Obama furious over Egypt remarks by ‘monster’ Clinton. (2011, 14 February). The Times.

Jha, S. (2007). Exploring Internet Influence on the Coverage of Social Protest: Content Analysis Comparing Protest Coverage in 1967 and 1999. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 84(1), 40-57.

Johnson-Cartee, K. (2005). News Narratives and News Framing: Constructing Political Reality. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield.

Karim, K. (2006). America’s media coverage of Muslims: The historical roots of contemporary portrayals. In E. Poole & J. Richardson. (Eds.), Muslims and the news media (pp. 116-127). London: I.B. Tauris.

Knight, M. (2012). Journalism as usual: The use of social media as a newsgathering tool in the coverage of the Iranian elections in 2009. Journal of Media Practice, 13, 61-74.

Kumar, D. (2010). Framing Islam: The Resurgence of Orientalism During the Bush II Era. Journal of Communication Inquiry, 34(3), 254-277.

Kunelius, R. and Renvall, M. (2010). Stories of a public: Journalism and the validity of citizens’ testimonies. Journalism, 11(5), 515-529.

Lee, C., Chan, J., Zhongdang, P., and So, C. (2005). National Prisms of a Global ‘Media Event’. In J. Curran and M. Gurevitch (Eds.), Mass Media and Society (pp. 320-335). London: Hodder Arnold.

Loughborough University Communication Research Centre. (2012). A BBC Trust report on the impartiality and accuracy of the BBC’s coverage of the events known as the “Arab Spring”: Content Analysis. Retrieved from:

http://downloads.bbc.co.uk/bbctrust/assets/files/pdf/our_work/arabspring_impartiality/appendix_a.pdf

McLaughlin, E. (2008). Hitting the panic button: policing/’mugging’/media/crisis. Crime Media Culture, 4(1), 145-154.

McLeod, D. (1995). Communicating deviance: The effects of television news coverage of social protest. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 39, 4-19.

McLeod, D., and Detenber, B. (1999). Framing Effects of Television News Coverage of Social Protest. Journal of Communication, 49, 3-23.

Mishra, S. (2008). Islam and Democracy: Comparing Post-9/11 Representations in the U.S. Prestige Press in the Turkish, Iraqi, and Iranian Contexts. Journal of Communication Inquiry, 32(2), 155-178.

Payne, G. and Payne, J. (2004). Key Concepts in Social Research. London: Sage Publications.

Pintak, L. (2006). Framing the other: Worldview, rhetoric, and the media dissonance since 9/11. In E. Poole & J. Richardson (Eds.), Muslims and the news media (pp. 188-198). London: I.B. Tauris.

Robinson, P. (2001). Theorizing the Influence of Media on World Politics: Models of Media Influence on Foreign Policy. European Journal of Communication, 16(4), 523-544.

Sambrook, R. (2011). Are Foreign Correspondents Redundant? The Changing Face of International News. Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism, Oxford. Retrieved from: https://reutersinstitute.politics.ox.ac.uk/sites/default/files/Are%20Foreign%20Correspondents%20Redundant%20The%20changing%20face%20of%20international%20news_0.pdf

Schlesinger, P. and Tumber, H. (1999). Reporting Crime: The Media Politics of Criminal Justice. In Tumber, H. (Ed.), News: A Reader (pp. 257-266). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Shoemaker, P. (1984). Media Treatment of Deviant Political Groups. Journalism Quarterly, 61, 66-75.

Shoemaker, P., Danielian, L., and Brendlinger, N. (1991). Deviant Acts, Risky Business and U.S. Interests: The Newsworthiness of World Events. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 68, 781-795.

Shoemaker, P., Vos, T., and Reese, S. (2009). Journalists as Gatekeepers. In Wahl-Jorgensen, K. and Hanitzsch, T. (Eds.), The Handbook of Journalism Studies (pp. 73-87). New York: Routledge.

Sigal, L.V. (1973). Reporters and officials. Lexington: D.C. Heath.

Tuchman, G. (1973). Making News by Doing Work: Routinizing the Unexpected. American Journal of Sociology, 79(1), 110-131.

Tuchman, G. (1978). Making News: A Study in the Construction of Reality. New York: The Free Press.

Turner, R. (1969). The Public Perception of Protest. American Sociological Review, 34(6), 815-831.

Van Leuven, S., Heinrich, A., and Deprez, A. (2015). Foreign reporting and sourcing practices in the network sphere: A quantitative content analysis of the Arab Spring in Belgian news media. New Media & Society, 17(4), 573-591.

Wolfsfeld, G. (1997). Media and Political Conflict: News from the Middle East. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17349/jmc117211

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2017 Journal of Media Critiques [JMC]

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.