THE INFLUENCE OF THE INTERNET ON CHILDREN’S VACCINATION: APPLYING INTERCULTURAL THEORIES TO ANALYZE PARENTAL DECISION-MAKING

Melissa Fryer

Abstract


Immunization is one of the greatest medical breakthroughs of modern history, reducing dozens of deadly diseases to preventable ones – even eradicating some entirely - yet parents are choosing to forgo vaccination for their children. Many of these parents are educated and affluent, with timely access to information on immunization's risks and benefits. How they use this information – to inform decision making on vaccination – is the subject of this research. Data for this study was gathered through semi-structured interviews with a small sample of six parents who researched vaccination on the Internet. Transcriptions were coded using Fairclough's framework for discourse analysis and analysis applied Gudykunst’s theory of anxiety uncertainty management. Research reveals parents seek information to support preconceived bias toward vaccination as well as reduce anxiety and uncertainty in decision making. This research adds to the understanding of how online information influences parental decision-making in regards to immunization of their children

Keywords


immunization, influence, Internet, intercultural communication, discourse analysis, decision making

Full Text:

PDF

References


Alfonso, C. (2012). Whooping cough makes deadly return across Canada. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from: http://www.theglobeandmail.com/life/health-and-fitness/health/whooping-cough-makes-deadly-return-across-canada/article4436946/

Alvesson, M. (2003). Beyond neopositivists, romantics, and localists: A reflexive approach to interviews in organizational research author(s). The Academy of Management Review, 28(1), 13-33.

Austvoll-Dahlgren, A., & Helseth, S. (2010). What informs parents’ decision-making about childhood vaccinations? Journal of Advanced Nursing, 66(11), 2421-2430.

Babaoff, C., & D'Auria, J. P. (2015). Googling for information about alternative vaccination schedules. Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 29(4), 379-384.

Barskey, M.P.H. et al. (2012). Mumps outbreak in Orthodox Jewish communities in the United States. The New England Journal of Medicine, 367(18), 1704-1713.

B.C. Centres for Disease Control (Dec. 15, 2014). About immunization. Retrieved from: http://www.bccdc.ca/imm-vac/AboutImmunization/default.htm

Beck, A. (1960). Issues in the anti-vaccination movement in England. Medical History 4(1). 310-322.

Betsch, C., et al. (2012). Opportunities and challenges of Web 2.0 for vaccination decisions. Vaccine 25, 3727-3733.

Bond, S. D., Carlson, K. A., Meloy, M. G., Russo, J. E., & Tanner, R. J. (2007). Information distortion in the evaluation of a single option. Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes, 102, 240-254. Retrieved from: https://faculty.fuqua.duke.edu/~kurtc/bio/Bond%20et%20al%202007.pdf

Cannon, H. M., Feinstein, A. H., & Friesen, D. P. (2010). Managing complexity: applying the conscious-competence model to experiential learning. Developments in Business Simulations and Experiential Learning, 37, 172-182.

Cohen, N., & Arieli, T. (2011). Field research in conflict environments: Methodological challenges and snowball sampling. Journal of Peace Research, 48(4), 423-435. doi: 10.1177/0022343311405698.

Coulter, A., & Jenkinson, C. (2005). European patients' views on the responsiveness of health systems and healthcare providers. The European Journal of Public Health, 15(4), 355-360.

Crouch, M., & McKenzie, H. (2006). The logic of small samples in interview-based qualitative research. Social Science Information, 45(4), 483-499.

DiCocco-Bloom, B., & Crabtree, B.F. (2006). The qualitative research interview. Medical Education, 40, 314–321. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2929.2006.02418.x

Dube, E., Vivion, M., Sauvageau, C., Gagneur, A., Gagnon, R., & Guay, M. (2015). Nature does things well, why should we interfere?: Vaccine hesitancy among mothers. Qualitative Health Research, 26(3), 1-15. doi: 1049732315573207.

Dube, E., Laberge, C., Guay, M., Bramadat, P, Roy, R. & Bettinger, J. (2013). Vaccine hesitancy: An overview. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, 9(8). 1763-1773.

Fairclough, N., Graham, P., Lemke, J., & Wodak, R. (2004.) Introduction. Critical Discourse Studies, 1:1, 1-7, DOI: 10.1080/17405900410001674489

Fairclough, N. (1996). Language and Power. Longman Inc.:New York. Retrieved from: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.462.6565&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Glanz, J. M., Wagner, N. M., Narwaney, K. J., Shoup, J. A., McClure, D. L., McCormick, E.V., & Daley, M. F. (2013). A mixed methods study of parental vaccine decision making and parent-provider trust. Academic Pediatrics, 13(5), 481-488.

Government of Canada (2010). Privacy and confidentiality. In Tri-council Policy Statement: Ethical conduct for research involving humans (Chapter 5). Retrieved from: http://www.pre.ethics.gc.ca/eng/policy-politique/initiatives/tcps2-eptc2/chapter5-chapitre5/

Gullion, J. S., Henry, L., & Gullion, G. (2008). Deciding to opt out of childhood vaccination mandates. Public Health Nursing, 25(5), 401-408.

Griffin, E. A., & McClish, G. A. (2011). A first look at communication theory. Boston: McGraw-Hill.

Gudykunst, W. B. (2005). Theorizing about intercultural communication. Sage.

Halcomb, E. J., & Davidson, P. M. (2006). Clinical methods: Is verbatim transcription of interview data always necessary? Nursing Research, 19, 38-42.

Hunink, M. G., et al. (2003). Elements of decision making in health care. Decision making in health and medicine: Integrating evidence and values (pp. 1-32). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Jørgensen, M. W., & Phillips, L. J. (2002). Discourse analysis as theory and method. Sage.

Kata, A. (2010). A postmodern Pandora’s box: Anti-vaccination misinformation on the Internet. Vaccine. 28, 1709-1716.

Kata, A. (2012). Anti-vaccine activists, Web 2.0, and the postmodern paradigm: An overview of tactics and tropes used online by the anti-vaccination movement. Vaccine. 30, 3887-3789.

Kvale, S. (1983). The qualitative research interview: A phenomenological and a hermeneutical mode of understanding. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology, 14(2), 171-196.

Lipshitz, R., & Strauss, O. (1997). Coping with uncertainty: A naturalistic decision making analysis. Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes, 69(2), 149-163. Retrieved from: http://www.oat.ethz.ch/education/Autumn_term_07/Material_on_Empirical_Methods/Lipshitzuncertainty.pdf

McMurray, R., Cheater, F. M., Weighall, A., Nelson, C., Schweiger, M., & Mukherjee, S. (2004). Managing controversy through consultation: A qualitative study of communication and trust around MMR vaccination decisions. British Journal of General Practice, 54, 520-525.

Oliver, D. G., Serovich, J. M., & Mason, T. L. (2005). Constraints and opportunities with interview transcription: Towards reflection in qualitative research. Social Forces, 84(2), 1273-1289.

Public Health Agency of Canada (Jan. 30, 2015). Vaccine Coverage in Canadian Children: Results from the 2011 Childhood National Immunization Coverage Survey. Retrieved from: http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/im/nics-enva/vccc-cvec-eng.php

Qu, S. Q., & Dumay, J. (2011). The qualitative research interview. Qualitative Research in Accounting and Management, 8(3), 238-264. doi.org/10.1108/11766091111162070

Saada, A., Lieu, T. A., Morain, S. R., Zikmund-Fisher, B. J., & Wittenberg, E. (2015). Parents’ choices and rationales for alternative vaccination schedules: A qualitative study. Clinical Pediatrics, 5(4), 236-243.

Seither, R., Masalovich, S., Knighton, C. L., Mellerson, J. Singleton, J.A., & Greby, S.M. (2014). Vaccination coverage among children in kindergarten - United States, 2013-14 school year. Centres for Disease Control and Prevention Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 63(41), 913-920.

Serna, J. (2015, April 16). Measles outbreak centred at Disneyland may be declared over by Friday. LA Times. Retrieved from: http://www.latimes.com/local/lanow/la-me-ln-measles-outbreak-disneyland-over-20150416-story.html

Serpell, L., & Green, J. (2006). Parental decision-making in childhood vaccination. Vaccine, 24(19), 4041-4046.

Sillence, E., Briggs, P., Harris, P.R. & Fishwick, L. (2007). How do patients evaluate and make use of online health information? Social Science and Medicine, 64(9), 1853-1862. Retrieved from: http://www.sciencedirect.com.ezproxy.royalroads.ca/science/article/pii/S0277953607000160

Sobo, E. J., Huhn, A., Sannwald, A., & Thurman, L. (2016): Information curation among vaccine cautious parents: Web 2.0, Pinterest thinking, and pediatric vaccination choice, Medical Anthropology. DOI: 10.1080/01459740.2016.1145219

Walsh, A. M., Hamilton, K., White, K. M., & Hyde, M. K. (2015). Use of online health information to manage children’s health care: a prospective study investigating parental decisions. BMC health services research, 15(1), 1.

Winterbottom, A., Bekker, H. L., Conner, M., & Mooney, A. (2008). Does narrative information bias individual’s decision making? A systematic review. Social Science and Medicine 67, 2079-2088.

Wolfe, R. M., & Sharp, L. K. (2005). Vaccination or immunization? The impact of search terms on the internet. Journal of health communication, 10(6), 537-551.

Yaqub, O., Castle-Clarke, S., Sevedalis, N., & Chataway, J. (2014). Attitudes to vaccination: A critical review. Social Science & Medicine, 112, 1-11.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17349/jmc116204

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2016 Journal of Media Critiques [JMC]

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.