An Exploration of Greek Business Executives Intercultural Communication Competence

Ioannis Dimitrios Karras


Managers ability to build global organizations and synergies is imperative, which in turn necessitates effective and appropriate intercultural communication skills. Literature to date primarily focuses on countries whose financial/corporate interdependence is of utmost importance. Not surprisingly then, the body of literature indicates that existing research addressing ICC within a Greek business context is inexistent. Consequently, this study is a preliminary attempt to start redressing this balance and hence, this proposed research aims to contribute to a poorly existing knowledge base by reporting on an enquiry undertaken to quantitatively determine middle managers ICC in Greece by measuring intercultural sensitivity -a determining factor of ICC. Quantitative data was obtained using the ISS from a body of fifty-five Greek middle-level managers. The results indicated that overall these managers have a high level of ICC; however no significant statistical correlations were found between the demographic variables explored and intercultural sensitivity. This paper concludes with some practical implications and recommendations for further research.


Intercultural Communication Competence; Intercultural Sensitivity; Greek Business Executives

Full Text:



Alred, G., & Byram, M. (2002). Becoming an intercultural mediator: A longitudinal study of residence abroad. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 23(5), 339-352.

Babbie, E. R. (1990). Survey research methods. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Bennett, M. J. (1993). Towards ethnorelativism: A developmental model of intercultural sensitivity. In R. M. Paige (ed.), Education for the intercultural experience, pp. 21-71. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press.

Byram, M. (1997). Teaching and Assessing Intercultural Communicative Competence. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters

Chen, G. M. (1990): Intercultural communication Competence: Some perspectives of research. The Howard Journal of Communications, 2, 243-261.

Chen, G. M. (1997). A Review of the Concept of Intercultural Sensitivity. Paper presented at the Biennial Convention of the Pacific and Asian Communication Association.

Chen, G. M., & Starosta, W. J. (1996). Intercultural communication competence: A synthesis. In Brant R. B. (ed.) Communication Yearbook 19. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, pp. 353-383.

Chen, G. M., & Starosta, W. J. (1998). A review of the concept of inter-cultural sensitivity. Human Communication 1, 1-16.

Chen, G. M., &Starosta, W. J. (2000). The development and validation of the intercultural sensitivity scale. Human Communication 3, 1-15.

Chen, G. M., &Starosta, W. J. (2008). Intercultural communication competence: A synthesis. In Asante, M. K., Miike, Y. and Yin, J. (eds.) The global intercultural communication reader. New York: Routledge, pp. 215-237.

Chomsky, N. (1965). Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Creswell, J. W. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. 3rd Edition, Los Angles: Sage.

Cui, G., & Van Den Berg, S. (1991). Testing the construct validity of intercultural effectiveness. International Journal of Intercultural Relations 15, 227-241.

Derdorff, D. K. (2004). Identification and Assessment of Intercultural Competence as a Student Outcome of International Education at Institutions of Higher Education in the United States. Unpublished dissertation, North Carolina State University, Raleigh.

Fantini, A. E. (2006). Exploring and assessing intercultural competence. Available at [Accessed 2 June 2014].

Fish, A. (2005). Assisting cross-border manager adjustment: Psycho-cultural and sociocultural interventions. Personnel Review 34(2): 225–245.

Fritz, W., Möllenberg, A., & Chen, G. M. (2002). Measuring intercultural sensitivity in different cultural contexts. Intercultural Communication Studies 11(2): 165-176.

Gage, M. (2001). International study for outstanding students: A case study. New Directions for Teaching and Learning 85, 43-48.

Graf, A. (2004). Screening and training intercultural competencies: Evaluating the impact of national culture on intercultural competencies. International Journal of Human Resource Management 15 (6), 1124-1148.

Gudykunst, W. B., & Kim, Y. Y. (1984). Communicating with Strangers, An Approach to Intercultural Communication. Random House, New York.

Hall, E. T. (1976). Beyond Culture. New York: Doubleday.

Hammer, M. R., Bennett, M. J., & Wiseman, R. (2003). Measuring intercultural sensitivity: The intercultural development inventory. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 27, 421-443.

Hammoud, J. (2011). Consultative Authority Decision Making: On the Development and Characterization of Arab Corporate Culture. International Journal of Business and Social Science. 2(9): 141-148.

Jurgens, J. C., & McAuliffe, G. (2004). Short-term study-abroad experience in Ireland: An exercise in cross-cultural counseling. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling 26(2), 147-161.

Kim, K., Slocum, J. W. (2008). Individual differences and expatriate assignment effectiveness: The case of U.S. – based Korean expatriates. Journal of World Business 43, 109-126.

Kubow, P. K., & Fossum, P. R. (2007). Comparative Education: Exploring issues in international context. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Landis, D., & Bhagat, R. S. (1996). A model of intercultural behavior and training. In Landis, D. and Bhagat, R. S. (eds.) Handbook of intercultural training. Thousand Oaks, Ca: Sage, pp. 1-16.

Langley, C. S, & Breese, J. R. (2005). Interacting sojourners: A study of students studying abroad. Social Science Journal 42(2), 313-321.

Medina-Lopez-Portillo, A. (2004). Intercultural Learning Assessment: The Link between Program Duration and the Development of Intercultural Sensitivity. The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad X, 179-199.

Melander, E. R. (2001). Educating the practitioner: Strategies for focusing on the Student in the undergraduate business curriculum. New Directions for Teaching and Learning 85, 85–94.

Mukalel, C. J. (1998). Psychology of Learning. Delhi: Discovery Publishing House.

Parker, B., & McEvoy, G. M. (1993). Initial examination of a model of intercultural adjustment. International Journal of Intercultural Relations 17 (3), 355-379.

Penbek, S, Yurdakul, D., & Cerit, A. G. (2009). Intercultural Communication Competence: A Study About the Intercultural Sensitivity of University Students Based on Their Education and International Experiences. European And Mediterranean Conference On Information Systems.

Peng, S. Y., Rangsipaht, S., & Thaipakee, S. (2005). Measuring Intercultural Sensitivity: A Comparative Study of Ethnic Chinese and Thai Nationals. Journal of Intercultural Communication Research 34(2), 119-137.

Sanchez, J. I., Spector, P. E., & Cooper, C. L. (2000). Adapting to a boundary less world: A developmental expatriate model. Academy of Management Executive 14(2), 96–106.

Spitzberg, B. H. (2000). A model of intercultural communication competence. In Samovar, L. A. and Porter, R. E. (eds.) Intercultural communication: A reader. 2nd Edition, Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing, pp. 7-24.

Schwartz, S. H. (2006). Value orientations: Measurement, antecedents and consequences across nations. In Jowell, R. Roberts, C. Fitzgerald, R. and Eva, G. (eds.) Measuring attitudes cross-nationally - lessons from the European Social Survey. London: Sage.

Steers, M. R., Sanchez-Runde, J. C., & Nardon, L. (2010). Management Across Cultures Challenges and Strategies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Taylor, E. (1994). Intercultural Competency: A Transformative Learning Process. Adult Education Quarterly 44, 154-174.

Tesoriero, F. (2006). Personal Growth Towards Intercultural Competence Through an International Field Education Programme. Australian Social Work 59(2), 126-140.

Ting-Toomey, S. (1999). Communicating Across Cultures. New York: The Guilford Press.

Varner, I. I. (2000). The theoretical foundation for intercultural business communication: A conceptual model. Journal of Business Communication 37(1), 39-57.

Zhao, C. M. (2002). Intercultural Competence: A Quantitative Study of Significance of Intercultural Competence and the Influence of College Experiences on Students’ Intercultural Competence Development’. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Available at

ZhaoCover.pdf [Accessed 14 May 2014]



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2015 Journal of Media Critiques [JMC]